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The Tek Part / La partie TECHNOLOGIE
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MASTERS : 1986 vs 2015 (Ex : Tutu - Warner Bros.)
The 1986 CD is a digital version of the master tapes. As a proof, the rather low RMS level, typical of the mastering of CDs of that time (simple copy without retouching the peaks).
A-weighted average level ≈ -23 dB - Peak max ≈ -1.4 dB
On the 2015 "remastered" version of Warner Bros. Records, it is clear from listening (and analysis) that the average level has been raised by +7 dB, achieving a "peaks" limitation. So we have less in need to increase the volume, but since we adjust the listening volume compared to an "average" level, the very slight difference that we perceive when listening is the addition of the Odd and Even Harmonic generated by the important limitation of the Peaks.
Tutu ReMastered 2015
A-weighted average level ≈ -16.6 dB - Peak max ≈ -0.3 dB
Considering that "peaks" are rare and brief (between 1 and 2 ms), their "amputation" is simulated as a "truncation" of the "overtaking" signal - as shown in the red zone of the graph. This method is usual and well known, and allows to keep a large part of the original signal while raising the level of the "average" signal (RMS).
7 dB Peak Limitation
Audio Comparison = Artist : Miles Davis - Album : Tutu - Label : Warner Bros. Records.
01 TUTU (excerpt) Mastering Warner Bros. 1986
01 TUTU (excerpt) Remastering Warner Bros. 2015